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Symptoms of southern rust are similar to common rust, but pustules are smaller and are almost always on the upper leaf surface. Pustules are usually circular or oval, very numerous, and densely scattered over the leaf. Spores are orange when they erupt from the pustule. As pustules age, they become chocolate brown to black, often forming dark circles around the original pustule.
For more information on southern rust, see the Crop Protection Network full publication or summary article.
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